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    Tranexamic Acid

    1. Featured Ingredient: Tranexamic Acid.
    Mileena, February 1, 2010.

    "Probably one of the more ‘unknown’ skin lightening ingredients out there, tranexamic acid is featured in very few products. It is proven to inhibit UV induced hyperpigmentation and melanocyte activity (lighten skin) particularily in people with melasma or dark spots. In the studies I have read, the pigment suprressing abilities of tranxemic acid seem to only work (or work best) on localized areas of irregular melanin distribution (for example, it works at treating a melasma patch around the mouth as opposed to actually lightening the overall skin tone, even if applied all over). The reason for this is because tranxemic acid acts against ‘stimuli’. Any external (or internal) stimuli that causes abnormal or excessive melanin production is what tranexamic acid inhibits."

    2. Anti-hyperpigmentation Effect of m-Tranexamic Acid.
    MAEDA KAZUHISA (Shiseido Sozaiyakuzaikaihatsuse Yakuzaikaihatsuken) ONO TAKAYUKI (Shiseido Sozaiyakuzaikaihatsuse Yakuzaikaihatsuken) OTA NAOMI (Shiseido Sozaiyakuzaikaihatsuse Yakuzaikaihatsuken) SHIBATA TAKAKO (Shiseido Sozaiyakuzaikaihatsuse Yakuzaikaihatsuken) SATO KIYOSHI (Shiseido Sozaiyakuzaikaihatsuse Yakuzaikaihatsuken) MATSUNAGA JUN (Tohokudai I Hifuka). VOL.22;NO.9;PAGE.5-11(2005).

    "It is found that there is a clear difference between the normal and the pigmented spots of human face skin by scientific examininations. It indicates that melanocytes are always activated by receiving unknown stimuli at the pigemented spots unlike the normal spots. As m-tranexamic acid acts suppressively on inflammatory proteases, it has been supposed to fundamentally suppress the melanocytes' activation caused by unknown stimuli, and to protect the skin from exacerbation of hyperpigmentation."

    3. Quasi-Drugs Developed in Japan for the Prevention or Treatment of Hyperpigmentary Disorders.
    Hideya Ando, Mary S. Matsui and Masamitsu Ichihashi. Int J Mol Sci. 2010; 11(6): 2566–2575. Published online 2010 June 18.

    "Tranexamic acid has been used as a traditional hemostatic medicine, and is known as an oral medicine for treating melasma [28]. Plasmin, a kind of protease in the blood serum, functions to enhance the intracellular release of arachidonic acid, a precursor of prostanoid [29], and also to elevate alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone processed from pro-opiomelanocortin [30]. Both arachidonic acid and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone can activate melanin synthesis by melanocytes. Therefore, the anti-plasmin activity of tranexamic acid is thought to play a role in its topical effectiveness for treating melasma."