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    Rubus Chingii Hu

    1. An aqueous extract of Rubuschingii fruits protects primary rat hepatocytes against tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidative stress.
    Ming-Hon Yaua, Chun-Tao Cheb, Song-Ming Liangb, Yun-Cheung Kongb, Wing-Ping Fong. Department of Biochemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China. Available online 5 November 2002.

    "Different in vitro free radical generating systems were used to assess the antioxidative activity of aqueous extracts of the five herbal components of Wu-zi-yan-zong-wan, a traditional Chinese medicinal formula with a long history of use for tonic effects. Fructus Rubi [Rubuschingii (Rosaceae) fruits] was found to be the most potent. It was further investigated using the primary rat hepatocyte system. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) was used to induce oxidative stress. Being a short chain analog of lipid hydroperoxide, t-BHP is metabolized into free radical intermediates by the cytochrome P450 system in hepatocytes, which in turn, initiate lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion and cell damage. Pre-treatment of hepatocytes with Fructus Rubi extract (50 g/ml to 200 g/ml) for 24 h significantly reversed t-BHP-induced cell viability loss, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and the associated glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation. The amount of reactive oxygen species formed was also decreased as visualized by the fluorescence probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. These results suggested that Fructus Rubi was useful in protecting against t-BHP-induced oxidative damage and may also be capable of attenuating cytotoxicity of other oxidants."

    2. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and inhibitory mechanism of tiliroside from raspberry.
    Yan-hua Lu, Juan Chen, Dong-zhi Wei, Zheng-tao Wang, Xin-yi Tao. State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, PR China. October 2009, Vol. 24, No. 5 , Pages 1154-1160.

    "Tiliroside was found to inhibit both monophenolase and diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The lag time of tyrosine oxidation catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase was obviously lengthened; 0.337mM of tiliroside resulted in the lag time extension from 46.7s to 435.1s. A kinetic analysis shown that tiliroside was a competitive inhibitor for monophenolase and diphenolase with Ki values of 0.052mM and 0.26mM, respectively. Furthermore, tiliroside showed 34.5% inhibition of intracellular tyrosinase activity and 54.1% inhibition of melanin production with low cytotoxicity on B16 mouse melanoma cells at 0.168mM. In contrast, arbutin displayed 9.1% inhibition of cellular tyrosinase activity and 29.5% inhibition of melanin production at the same concentration. These results suggested that tiliroside was a potent tyrosinase inhibitor and might be used as a skin-whitening agent and pigmentation medicine."