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    1. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect of quercetin 4'-O-▀-D-glucopyranoside from dried skin of red onion (Allium cepa).
    Arung, Enos Tangke1; Wijaya Kusuma, Irawan2; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi3; Kondo, Ryuichiro. Natural Product Research, Volume 25, Number 3, February 2011 , pp. 256-263(8).

    "In an effort to find a new whitening agent, we focused our attention on Allium cepa (red onion). Based on biologically guided fractionation using mushroom tyrosinase, quercetin 4'-O-▀-D-glucopyranoside was isolated from the dried skin of A. cepa. Quercetin 4'-O-▀-D-glucopyranoside showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity using L-tyrosine or L-DOPA as a substrate, with IC50 values of 4.3 and 52.7 ÁM, respectively. Based on the results obtained, the dried skin of red onion possesses ingredients with potential for skin-whitening cosmetics with anti-tyrosinase activity."

    2. Skin whitening compositions based on Hydroxyaryl Alkyl Ketones and their Isosteric Derivatives.
    Shyam K.Gupta, Scottsdale, AZ (US). Shyam K.Gupta Bioderm Research 5221 E.Windrose Drive Scottsdale, AZ 85254 (US).

    "The antioxidants of non-sulfhydryl donating groups can also enhance skin whitening efficacy of compositions of the present invention albeit to a lesser degree. Relative to the nature of such non sulfhydryl antioxidant compositions, the selection can be made from Ascorbic acid, Ascorbic acid Esters, Ascorbic acid glucosides, Ascorbic acid salts and other derivatives, Glucosamine ascorbate, Argininc ascorbate, Lysine ascorbate, Glutathione ascorbate, Nicotinamide ascorbate, Niacin ascorbate, Allantoin ascorbate, Creatine ascorbate, Creatinine ascorbate, Chondroltin ascorbate, Chitosan ascorbate, DNA Ascorbate, Carnosine ascorbate, Vitamin E, various Vitamin E derivatives, Tocotrienol, Rutin, Quercetin..."

    3. Mulberry leaves as a source of biologically active compounds.
    Jeszka, M.; Kobus-Cisowska, J.; Flaczyk, E. Postepy Fitoterapii 2009 Vol. 10 No. 3 pp. 175-179.

    "Mulberry, a fast-growing deciduous plant, grows under tropical, subtropical and temperate climate. It is known for ages for its different applications. Leaves, bark and root have long been used in Chinese medicine to treat fever, improve eyesight, strengthen joints, protect the liver, facilitate discharge of urine and lower blood pressure. Nowadays mulberry leaves and theirs extracts, due to a strong antioxidant activity, are used to prevent and treat wide range of civilization disorders. In the paper morphology, rich phytochemistry and antioxidant potential of mulberry leaves are characterized. Flavonoids from this plant, including quercetin, rutin and isoquercitrin, as a free radical scavengers, show the potential effect against oxidative stress. Thus, the chemoprotective effect of mulberry leaves is discussed. The review is focused on the some examinations of plant leaves and its extracts as a potent influence on cardiovascular diseases, especially inhibit LDL oxidation and prevent atherosclerosis. Diabetes, the new disorder of XXI century, could be prevented and treated by components of mulberry leaves. Numerous studies have reported that mulberry plant is effective against hyperglycemia and lipid peroxidation. Neuroprotective function of mulberry leaves extracts are also described. Last examinations show that mulberry leaves extracts have a promising skin whitening activities."