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    Morus Alba (fruit)

    1. Whitening and Antierythemic effect of a cream containing Morus alba extract.
    Naveed Akhtar, Jehad Hisham, Haji M. Shoaib Khan, Barkat Ali Khan, TariqMahmood and Tariq Saeed. Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan, Available online: 5 April 2012.

    "An extract of mulberry is rich in natural antioxidants. Mulberry Morus Alba has high phenolic compounds which have high levels of total Anthocyanin. Anthocyanins are considered very good antioxidant agents. Anthocyanins, Gallic acid, Flavonoids and Tannins in preventing cell damage make them the strongest candidates for cosmetic application. Also the prsesnce of tyrosinase inhibitors activities and its free radical scavenging role, are important in cosmetic skin-whitening. Oxidative stress contributes to skin aging and can adversely affect skin health. Antioxidants active in skin cells may support skin health. Morus alba has been reported to show tyrosinase inhibition and inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and melanin formation in B-16 melanoma cells. This herbal medicine has been used as a cosmetic additive as antiaging and skin-whitening."

    2. Morusalba L. nature's functional tonic.
    Masood Sadiq Butta, Akmal Nazirb, M. Tauseef Sultana, Karin SchroŽn, National Institute of Food Science & Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan,Available online 11 June 2008.

    "Currently, importance of natural products is being revitalized to alleviate various health discrepancies. The link between health and diet is well documented and the consumers' trend reflects conscience towards their dietary habits. Probing these links has led to the emergence of functional, nutraceuticals and pharma foods, now taking hold over global nutrition market. Phytochemicals in diet could provide protection against several threats like free radical formation, degenerative disorders and lifestyle related diseases but still role of array of active ingredients should be unveiled. The review is intended to focus on rich phytochemistry of Morusalba L., its antioxidant potential, inhibition of LDL oxidation, neurodegenerative disorders and mode of action in boosting skin tone. It has a unique nutritional profile containing proteins, phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins that enhances its significance as promising nature's functional tonic. Chemistry of mulberry leaves enumerate that it contains some antimicrobial agents like kuwanon G and leachianone etc. Mulberry extracts or components especially flavonoids i.e. quercetin, rutin and isoquercitrin scavenge free radicals showing potential against oxidative stress. Presence of prenylated flavonoids further strengthened its antioxidant claims. Additionally, these antioxidants provide cardiovascular protection as these inhibit LDL oxidation and thus atherosclerosis. Likewise, some other components such as 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and Moran 20K have been reported to be effective against hyperglycemia and lipid peroxidation in diabetics. Mulberry leaves as protein source in food formulations and neuroprotective functions can be used against neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinsonism. Furthermore, it also demands special consideration to improve skin tone."

    3. Evaluation of free radical scavenging and antityrosinase activities of standardized longan fruit extract.
    Nuchanart Rangkadiloka, Somkid Sitthimonchaib, Luksamee Worasuttayangkurna, Chulabhorn Mahidolc, Mathuros Ruchirawatb, Jutamaad Satayavivad. Laboratory of Pharmacology, Chulabhorn Research Institute (CRI), 54 Moo 4, Vipavadee-Rangsit Highway, Laksi, Bangkok 10210, Thailand. Available online 12 September 2006.

    "Longan seeds are found to contain high levels of some beneficial polyphenolic compounds such as corilagin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. The present study examined the free radical scavenging activity of longan seed extract by using three different assay methods. Longan extracts contained corilagin ranging from zero to 50.64 mg/g DW, gallic acid from 9.18 to 23.04 mg/g DW, and ellagic acid from 8.13 to 12.65 mg/g DW depending on the cultivars. Dried longan seed extracts of cultivar Edor contained high levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid and also exhibited the highest radical scavenging activities when comparing fresh seed and dried pulp extracts. For scavenging activity of DPPH and superoxide radicals, longan seed extract was found to be as effective as Japanese green tea extract while dried longan pulp and mulberry green tea extracts showed the least scavenging activities. In the ORAC assay, both fresh and dried longan seed also had higher activity than dried pulp and whole fruit. However, the results demonstrate that three polyphenolics may not be the major contributors of the high antioxidant activity of longan water extracts but this high activity may be due to other phenolic/flavonoid glycosides and ellagitannins present in longan fruit. In addition, longan seed also showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 2.9Ė3.2 mg/ml. Therefore, the preliminary observations suggest that longan seed extract could be another potential source of potent natural dietary antioxidants and also in an application as a new natural skin- whitening agent."